School Bus Fleet

FACT 2013

A management & maintenance magazine for school transportation fleets

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Reclining seat: An activity seat with a reclining seat back; not permitted in school buses. Seat belt ready seat: A bench seat meeting the requirements of FMVSS No. 222, the frame of which is designed for the installation of lap belts or CSRS attachment devices under FMVSS 210. Seat belt: A passenger restraint system incorporating lap belts or lap-shoulder belts and meeting the requirements of FMVSS Nos. 209 and 210. Seating capacity: The number of designated seating positions provided in a vehicle, including the driver's position. In determining seating capacity, each wheelchair securement location shall be counted as four designated seating positions. Designed seating capacity: The theoretical passenger capacity that a vehicle would have if it were constructed with the maximum number of seating positions according to standard seating plans; also known as manufacturer's seating capacity. Equipped seating capacity: The number of designated seating positions provided in a new bus per manufacturer's body/seating plan. Reduced capacity: The capacity that is achieved when one or more seats are removed from the standard design during or after manufacture of the vehicle. Seating position: The space on a school bus bench seat designated for one student. The number of such positions per seat is determined by dividing the width of the seat by 15" and rounding to the nearest whole number, as described in FMVSS No. 222. Seating reference point: The manufacturer's design point, with coordinates relative to the vehicle structure, which establishes the rearmost normal driving or riding position of each designated seating position and simulates the position of the pivot center of the human torso and thigh. Securement points: Locations on the base or seat frame of the wheelchair/ mobility aid where the securement system should be attached. Securement system: The means of securing a mobile seating device to a vehicle in accordance with FMVSS No. 222, including all necessary buckles, anchors, webbing/straps and other fasteners. Securement and restraint system: The total system that secures and restrains both a wheelchair/mobility aid and its occupant; also known as WTORS. Self-insured: Refers to a company or school district that provides reserved funds against claims or losses. Sensor: An electronic device installed on a school bus for the purpose of detecting animate objects in the loading zone; also known as object detection system. Shuttle: A trip run back and forth over a short route (e.g., between two schools). Slack adjuster: Adjustable device connected to the brake chamber pushrod that transmits brake application force and compensates for lining wear. SOS lights: Stop on Signal lights. (See also alternately fashing signal lamps.) Special education: Specially designed instruction to meet the unique needs of a child with disabilities. Specially equipped school bus: Any school bus designed, equipped or modifed to accommodate students with special needs. Split-brake system: A service brake system with two separate hydraulic circuits that, upon failure of either, retains full or partial braking ability. Stanchion: An upright post or bar, usually installed from foor to ceiling in a bus, that provides support for other structural members and/or provides a hand-hold for passengers. State director: The chief government administrator in charge of a state's student transportation program and responsible for oversight of regulatory functions. Stop arm: A device in the form of a red octagon extending outward from the side of a school bus to signal that the bus has stopped to load or unload passengers; meets FMVSS No. 131; also known as stop semaphore and stop signal arm. Stopping distance: Braking distance plus reaction distance. Braking distance: The distance a vehicle travels between the time the brakes are applied and the time forward motion ceases. Reaction distance: Distance a vehicle travels during the time it takes for a driver to recognize the need to stop and to apply the brakes. Strobe light: A bright, short-duration light that fashes as a result of an electronic discharge of electricity through a gas. Stroller: A lightweight, folding mobility aid. Student: Any child who attends a school, as previously defned. Student rides: The number of students transported in a given system multiplied by the number of oneway trips in a school bus. (For example, a school district that transports 1,000 students provides 2,000 student rides daily or 360,000 student rides to and from school annually, assuming 180 school days. To determine the total number of student rides annually, the district would add the actual or estimated number of students transported on activity trips [times 2] to the fgure above.) Substitute driver: A driver who is not assigned to a regular route but is employed to provide immediate coverage, when necessary, due to driver absences or emergencies; also known as spare driver and extraboard driver. Suspension system: The components of the vehicle that transmit the load of the vehicle's weight from the chassis framework to the ground, including the springs, axles, wheels, tires and related connecting components. T V Temperature control system: The means of heating or cooling the interior of the vehicle. Tether: An upper anchor strap used in addition to a seat belt to hold certain types of restraint devices in place. Tiedown system: (See securement system.) Tire cords: The strands forming the reinforcement structure in a tire. To-and-from school: Transportation from home to school and from school to home; also transportation from school to school or from school to job training site. Tour: Transportation of a group on a longer trip, usually by charter bus (e.g., senior class trip to Washington). Track seating: A seating system in which seating units, including mobility aids, are secured to the vehicle structure by attaching them to tracks on the vehicle foor. Transverse: Perpendicular to the longitudinal centerline of the vehicle (i.e., from side to side). Trip: The transportation of students from school to any destination, followed by a return trip back to school. The two together make a round trip. Tripper service: Regularly scheduled mass transit service that is open to the public, and that is designed or modifed to accommodate the needs of school students and personnel, using various fare collections or subsidy systems. Must be part of the regular route service as indicated in published route schedules. TSA: Transportation Security Administration; an agency of the Department of Homeland Security. Turbocharger: A device that uses the pressure of exhaust gases to drive a turbine that, in turn, pressurizes air normally drawn into the engine's chambers. Turnkey: Partial privatization in which a school district hires a company to supply drivers, maintenance management and/or vehicles; also known as management contract. Two-way radio: Electronic communication system that uses a designated airway for transmission between a bus and a base station. Vapor lock: Boiling or vaporization of fuel in the lines from excessive heat, which interferes with liquid fuel movement and in some cases stops the fow. Vehicle miles: The aggregate number of miles a vehicle travels in a given period. Video system: A means of monitoring student behavior in a school bus. The system includes one or more video cameras to tape activity. Camera housing units mounted in each bus appear to hold a camera, whether or not one is actually in place; also known as surveillance. VIN: Vehicle Identifcation Number; a series of Arabic numbers and Roman letters that is assigned to a motor vehicle for identifcation purposes. Viscosity: A measure of internal resistance to fow or motion offered by a fuid lubricant. U ULSD: Ultra-low sulfur diesel. Diesel fuel that has a sulfur content of not more than 15 ppm (parts per million). Regular diesel fuel has a sulfur content of 200 ppm. Unload: To discharge passengers from a school bus. Unloaded vehicle weight: The weight of a vehicle with maximum capacity of all fuids necessary for operation, but without cargo or occupants or accessories that are ordinarily removed from the vehicle when they are not in use. UST: Underground storage tank. W Walking distance: The maximum distance a student can be required to walk to school before transportation must be provided; also known as non-transportation zone. Weather emergencies: Weather conditions that require a deviation from normal transportation procedures (e.g., fooding, snowstorm). WC-19: A voluntary industry standard that establishes minimum design and performance requirements for wheelchairs that are occupied by users traveling in motor vehicles. The standard applies to a wide range of wheelchair types and styles, including manual wheelchairs, powerbase wheelchairs, three-wheeled scooters, tilt-in-place wheelchairs and specialized mobile seating bases with removable seating inserts. Weight distribution: The distribution proportion of the vehicle load divided between the front and rear axles. Wheelbase: The distance between the centerline of the front axle and the centerline of the rear axle. Wheelchair: A seating system comprising at least a frame, a seat and wheels that is designed to provide support and mobility for a person with physical disabilities. For the purpose of this standard, this term encompasses standard manual wheelchairs, powered wheelchairs, power-based wheelchairs, three-wheel scootertype wheelchairs and specialized seating bases; also known as mobile seating device. Wheelchair lift: (See power lift.) Z ZEB: Zero-emissions bus. ZEV: Zero-emissions vehicle. SCHOOL BUS FLEET 23

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