School Bus Fleet

FACT 2013

A management & maintenance magazine for school transportation fleets

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glossary Carrier: Any public school district, any public or private educational institution providing preschool, elementary or secondary education, or any person, frm or corporation under contract to such a district or institution, engaged in transporting students. Casualty insurance: (See liability insurance.) CDIP: Commercial Drivers Instructional Permit. The learner's permit that a CDL applicant receives upon passing the knowledge tests. Allows the applicant to drive a CMV when accompanied by a driver with a CDL. CDL: Commercial Drivers License. CFR: Code of Federal Regulations. Chassis: Vehicle frame with all operating parts, including engine frame, transmission, wheels and brakes. Chassis starting interlock circuit: A device that prevents the engine of a bus from starting if any of the emergency exits are locked or not fully closed and latched. Clean diesel: A combination of improved emission controls and cleanerburning diesel fuel (see ULSD) that signifcantly reduces the pollutants from diesel engines. Can refer to newer vehicles that meet EPA's 2007 standards or to older vehicles retroftted with emission-control technology. CMV: Commercial Motor Vehicle. A motor vehicle defned in 49 CFR 390.5. CMVSA: Commercial Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1986; among other things, authorization for CDL. CNG: Compressed natural gas. Companion animal: An animal trained to provide assistance for persons with disabilities; can be a guide animal, assistive animal or service animal. Completed vehicle: A vehicle that requires no further manufacturing operation to perform its intended function other than the addition of readily attachable components, such as mirrors or tire and rim assemblies, or minor fnishing operations such as painting. Conduct report: A form authorized by school offcials for use by drivers to report instances of unacceptable behavior by school bus passengers; also known as discipline report. Continuum of services: The range of possible options, from least restrictive to most restrictive, available to students with disabilities for transportation services. Conspicuity: The ability of an object to be noticed and recognized without any confusion or ambiguity (SAE J1967). COWHAT: Committee on Wheelchairs and Transportation; a group comprising safety experts, rehabilitation engineers, clinicians, manufacturers and other stakeholders who work under the auspices of RESNA to develop voluntary equipment standards related to providing safer transportation for wheelchair-seated occupants of motor vehicles. Crash: school bus: (1) A motor vehicle collision involving a school bus with or without a student on board, resulting in any personal injury or death or any disabling damage to one or more motor vehicles requiring the vehicle(s) 16 SCHOOL BUS FLEET to be transported away from the scene by a tow truck or other vehicle; or (2) A collision involving any vehicle with any student or with a school bus at any time during the loading or unloading process. (See also accident.) Preventable: A crash that could have been prevented by reasonable action on the part of the school bus driver. Reportable: A crash required to be reported under FMCSR (i.e., a crash involving a CMV on a public road in which there is a fatality or injury treated away from the scene, or in which a vehicle must be towed from the scene). Crash test: (See impact test.) Criminal record check: The investigation of a person's criminal history through submission of fngerprints to state and/or federal authorities; also known as background check. Crossing arm: A device attached to the front bumper of a school bus that is activated during loading and unloading and designed to force the students to walk far enough away from the front of the bus to be seen by the driver; also known as crossing control arm. CSRS: Child Safety Restraint System; a device (other than lap or lap-shoulder seat belts) meeting the requirements of FMVSS No. 213, designed for use in a motor vehicle to restrain, seat or position a child who weighs 30 kg (66 lbs) or less; also known as child safety seat and car seat. Curb weight: The weight of a motor vehicle with standard equipment, maximum capacity of engine fuel, oil and coolant and, if applicable, air conditioning and additional weight of optional engine, but without passengers. D Danger zone: A 12-foot area immediately surrounding the stopped school bus. Deadhead: Movement of a bus without passengers (e.g., from school to bus yard). Deadtime: The period between arriving at an activity trip destination and leaving the destination for the trip home; also known as waiting time and stand-by time. Dealer: Any person who is engaged in the sale and distribution of new motor vehicles or motor vehicle equipment. Refers primarily to purchasers who, in good faith, purchase any such vehicle or equipment for purposes other than resale. DEF: Diesel exhaust fuid; the reactant necessary for the functionality of the SCR system. It is prepared by dissolving solid urea to create 32.5 percent solution in water. DEF breaks down into ammonia (NH3) and reacts with NOx in the SCR system to produce nitrogen (N2) and water (H2O). Distributor: Any person or company primarily engaged in the sale and distribution of motor vehicles or motor vehicle equipment and/or parts for resale. Dispatch: To relay service instructions to drivers. DNR: Do Not Resuscitate; an order from a parent, legal guardian or court that prohibits the use of emergency measures to prolong the life of an individual. DOC: Diesel oxygenation catalyst. Devices that use a chemical process to break down pollutants in the exhaust stream of diesel engines into lessharmful components. DOT: United States Department of Transportation. DOT driver: A driver who meets the FMCSR standards, set forth in 49 CFR 391. Double run: One bus making two trips over the same route each morning and afternoon (e.g., frst picking up high school students and then returning for elementary students). Downtime: The period when a vehicle is not in service (e.g., due to mechanical failure or scheduled maintenance). DPF: Diesel particulate flter. Ceramic devices that collect particulate matter in the exhaust stream of diesel engines. The high temperature of the exhaust heats the ceramic structure and allows the particles inside to break down (or oxidize) into less harmful components. Driver training: Instructional program designed to impart knowledge and improve the skills necessary for school bus drivers, including, but not limited to, knowledge of the vehicle, safe-driving practices, emergency procedures and passenger control. In-service: Training provided annually, or more often, to school bus-certifed drivers. Pre-service: Training provided to driver applicants prior to school bus certifcation and/or transporting students. Driver qualifications: Restrictions of state and federal law that determine a person's eligibility to become a school bus driver (e.g., age limits, physical condition, criminal record, driving history, etc). DRL: Daytime running lamps; Head lamps that operate automatically at a reduced voltage during the day to increase the vehicle's visibility. Drug: Any substance other than alcohol considered to be a controlled substance listed on schedules I through V in 21 CFR 1308. Dry run: A trip on a route without student passengers for driver training or familiarization of the route. Dual brake system: (See split brake system.) Dual fuel system: (See alternative fuel.) DVIR: Driver vehicle inspection report. Federal, state or local approved form for reporting results of pre-trip and post-trip inspections; also known as daily vehicle inspection report and pre-trip inspection form. E EBT: Evidential breath testing device; a device approved by NHTSA for testing drivers for alcohol use. EDR: Event data recorder; a device that records vehicle functions (e.g., speed change during a crash). EGR: Exhaust gas recirculation; a type of in-cylinder NOx-reducing technology that involves the reintroduction of metered quantities of cooled exhaust gas back into the cylinder as it flls with air, displacing some of the air volume and hence some of the oxygen. Replacing a proportion of this oxygen reduces the NOx formed during combustion. EHA: The Education for all Handicapped Children Act, passed in 1975 as P.L.94-142. (See also IDEA.) EPA: United States Environmental Protection Agency. Early bus: A bus scheduled to run prior to the regular morning run (e.g., to take children to day care programs located in schools). Early intervention service: Education and related services provided to infants and toddlers from birth through 2 years of age. Emergency roof exit: An opening in the bus roof meeting the requirements of FMVSS No. 217 that provides emergency egress and sometimes ventilation; also known as roof hatch. Emergency response plan: A detailed approach to identifying and responding to potential accidents involving hazardous substances; required for every community by the Emergency Planning and Right-to-Know Act of 1986. EOBR: Electronic On-Board Recorders. An electronic device that collects, stores and displays data relative to driver and vehicle performance, including such elements as location, time, speed and distance traveled. Ergonomics: The study of the design of equipment to reduce human fatigue and discomfort. Ethanol: Grain alcohol, distilled from fermented organic matter and used as a vehicle fuel. Evacuation drill: Performance of a mock school bus evacuation in order to teach students proper emergency procedures and to provide practice in the use of emergency exits; also known as bus safety drills. Extended-year service: Transportation provided for students subsequent to the end of the traditional school year; especially transportation as a related service for students with disabilities beyond the normal school year in accordance with the IEP. Extraboard driver: (See substitute driver.) F FAPE: Free Appropriate Public Education; it refers to special education and related services, including transportation, provided at public expense in accordance with a child's IEP (34 CFR 300.13 and 300.121). FBI background check: The national criminal record check. FERPA: The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974, 20 USC 1232; requires confdentiality of student records in public schools, but allows access to necessary information regarding student disabilities and/or health needs to those who have a need to know, including school bus drivers. Field trip: The transportation of students to an event or destination that is an extension of classroom activity (i.e., a part of the curriculum). A feld

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