School Bus Fleet

FACT 2013

A management & maintenance magazine for school transportation fleets

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glossary Following is an abridged version of the glossary that appears in the 2010 edition of National School Transportation Specifcations and Procedures. A Accessibility: Ability of vehicles or facilities to accommodate people with mobility impairments. Accident: A loss involving personal injury or property as follows: (1) A motor vehicle collision involving a school bus, a school activity bus or a school tripper bus, resulting in any personal injury or death or any disabling damage to one or more motor vehicles requiring the vehicle(s) to be transported away from the scene by a tow truck or other vehicle; (2) A collision involving any vehicle with any student at any time during the loading or unloading process of the school bus, school activity bus or school tripper bus; or (3) An injury to any student inside the school bus, school activity bus or school tripper bus as a result of negligent/unsafe acceleration, deceleration or other movement of the bus. Preventable: A crash that could have been prevented by reasonable action on the part of the school bus driver. Reportable: A crash required to be reported under FMCSR (i.e., a crash involving a CMV on a public road in which there is a fatality or an injury treated away from the scene, or that requires a vehicle to be towed from the scene). Activity trip: The transportation of students to any event sanctioned for student attendance or authorized by an offcer, employee or agent of a public or private school, other than to-andfrom school transportation. (See also feld trip.) ADA: The Americans with Disabilities Act, PL 101-336, 42 USC 12101, et. seq. When referenced in regard to student transportation, ADA generally refers to the specifcations of 49 USC 38, Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Specifcation for Transportation Vehicles. Adaptive device: Any item or piece of equipment used to increase, maintain or improve functional capabilities of children with disabilities; also known as assistive device. Advanced EGR: An exhaust gas recirculation system (EGR) utilizing advanced electronic fuel management systems combined with proprietary piston bowl design and twin turbo air management systems. Allowable alternate vehicle: A vehicle designed for carrying 11 or more people, including the driver, that meets all the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards applicable to school buses except 49 CFR 571.108 and 571.131. (See also Multifunction School Activity Bus.) Alternately flashing signal lamps: A system of red or red-and-amber signal lamps mounted horizontally both front and rear, intended to identify a vehicle as a school bus and to inform other users of the highway that 14 SCHOOL BUS FLEET the bus is about to stop or is stopped to load or unload children. The system of red and amber signal lamps is available in either sequential or nonsequential operation. Sequential operation: The system of red and amber signal lamps is designed to operate in sequence. Amber signal lamps must be activated before the red signal lamps can be activated. (Amber lamps are deactivated when the red lamps are activated.) Non-sequential operation: The system of red and amber signal lamps is designed so that red lamps are activated whenever the entrance doors are opened, regardless of whether the amber lamps have been activated. Alternative-fuel vehicle (AFV): A vehicle designed to operate on an energy source other than petroleumbased gasoline or diesel fuel. Such fuels include, but are not limited to, CNG, LNG, LPG, and electricity. Bi-fuel: A vehicle designed to operate on two different fuels, but not simultaneously. Dual fuel: A vehicle designed to operate on a mixture of two different fuels. Hybrid power: The use of two or more power sources to provide the motive force for the vehicle (e.g. electricity to drive the wheels with internal combustion to supplement the battery). Anchorage point: The point of attachment of a securement system or occupant restraint to the vehicle structure. Antilock brakes: Brake systems with sensors that automatically control the degree of wheel slip during braking and that relieve brake pressure on wheels that are about to lock up brakes; also known as ABS. Aspect ratio: Percentage used to express the ratio of a tire's height to its width; also known as tire profle. Assistive device: (See adaptive device.) Attendant: A person assigned to assist one or more individual student(s) with special needs on a school bus or school vehicle; also known as aide or paraprofessional. (See also monitor.) B BAC: Blood or breath alcohol concentration; the measure used to determine alcohol impairment. Behavior management: Methods of infuencing student conduct on the school bus. Biodiesel: Vehicle fuel made from plant or animal matter and used alone or mixed with diesel fuel in engines. B100 or "neat biodiesel" refers to the pure form. Biodiesel can be mixed with petrodiesel in any proportion, but the most common form is B20, which is 20 percent biodiesel and 80 percent petrodiesel. Boarding: The process of loading passengers into a school bus. Booster seat: A frm platform, used with a lap-shoulder belt, that raises the child so that the height of his thighs and shoulders are closer to those of an adult and helps route both portions of the lap-shoulder belt to ft the smaller body; also called belt-positioning booster. Brake: A device or mechanism used to retard and stop the speed of a moving vehicle or to prevent the movement of a stopped vehicle. Emergency brake: A mechanism designed to stop a motor vehicle after a failure of the service brake system. Foundation brake: An assembly of the non-rotational components of a brake including its mechanism for developing a frictional force. Retarder: An auxiliary braking device used to reduce brake wear and/ or improve braking performance. Service brake: The primary mechanism designed to retard and stop a moving vehicle. Parking brake: A mechanism designed to prevent the movement of a stationary motor vehicle. Brake fade: A condition that occurs as brakes become less effective. Bus: A motor vehicle with motive power, except a trailer, designed for carrying more than 10 persons. Activity bus: A bus owned, leased or contracted by a school district and regularly used to transport students on feld trips, athletic trips or other curricular or extracurricular activities, but not used for to-and-from school transportation; must meet all FMVSS for school buses. Charter bus: A bus that is operated under a short-term contract with a school district or other sponsor who has acquired the exclusive use of the vehicle at a fxed charge to transport students to a school-related event. DOT bus: A school bus that meets the FMCSR standards for interstate transportation set forth in 49 CFR 390. Intercity bus: A large bus with front doors only, high-back seats and under-foor luggage storage for highspeed, long distance trips; also known as motorcoach and over-the-road coach. Nonconforming bus: Any vehicle designed to carry more than 10 passengers that is used to transport students to or from school or school-related activities that does not meet the federal standards specifc to school buses. School bus: A bus owned, leased, contracted to or operated by a school or school district and regularly used to transport students to and from school or school-related activities, but not including a charter bus or transit bus. A school bus must meet all applicable FMVSS and is readily identifed by alternately fashing lamps, National School Bus Yellow paint, and the legend "School Bus," except as may be provided for the multifunction school activity bus. Type A: A Type A school bus is a conversion or bus constructed utilizing a cutaway front-section vehicle with a left side driver's door. This defnition includes two classifcations: Type A-1, with a Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR) of 14,500 pounds or less; and Type A-2, with a GVWR greater than 14,500 and less than or equal to 21,500 pounds. Type B: A Type B school bus is constructed utilizing a stripped chas- sis. The entrance door is behind the front wheels. This defnition includes two classifcations: Type B-1, with a GVWR of 10,000 pounds or less; and Type B-2, with a GVWR greater than 10,000 pounds. Type C: A Type C, or conventional, school bus is constructed utilizing a chassis with a hood and front fender assembly. The entrance door is behind the front wheels. This type also includes cutaway truck chassis or truck chassis with cab with or without a left side door and a GVWR greater than 21,500 pounds. Type D: A Type D school bus is constructed utilizing a stripped chassis. The entrance door is ahead of the front wheels; also known as rear or front engine transit-style school buses. Multifunction School Activity Bus (MFSAB): "A school bus whose purposes do not include transporting students to and from home or school bus stops," as defned in 49 CFR 571.3. This subcategory of school bus meets all FMVSS for school buses except the traffc control requirements (alternately fashing signal and stop arm). Specially equipped: A school bus designed, equipped or modifed to accommodate students with special needs. School activity bus: Any motorcoach other than a school bus or transit bus used for the transportation of students enrolled in a public or private school at or below the 12th grade level, to or from school-related activities. School tripper bus: Any motor vehicle that is routed by, or in the vicinity of, a public or private school, and is used for to- or from-school transportation of any student enrolled in that public or private school at, or above, the ninth-grade level, operated or contracted by, and under the exclusive jurisdiction of a publicly owned or operated transit system. Transit bus: A bus designed for frequent stops, with front and back-center doors and low-back seating, operated on a fxed schedule and route to provide public transportation by indiscriminately taking on passengers at designated bus stops. Bus body: The portion of a bus that encloses the occupant space exclusive of the bumpers, the chassis frame and any structure forward of the forward-most point of the windshield mounting. Bus pass: Authorization to ride a school bus other than the student's assigned bus; or prepayment for transit bus rides. Bus yard: An area for storage and maintenance of buses. C Cam wrap: A seat-mounted system for attaching a safety harness to a school bus seat. Capacity: (See seating capacity.) Capital costs: Long-term costs associated with the purchase of vehicles, buildings and property. Captive: Refers to a non-removable attachment, part or ftting on a securement system.

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